に従って; に従い, にしたがって; にしたがい
following; in accordance with; as 〜, accordingly; in proportion to
As our income increases, our expenditure increase accordingly.
by; according to; due to; owing to; due to
we lost our father due to the war
to give me, to do for me, I was given
The teacher gave me a book to help me in my studies. // Would you please write this in Kanji for me?
It doesn't matter whether it's finished (lit. or not)
while doing A, I had a chance to do B, since doing A anyway, do B
while i was at my parents,
I heard from Tom you want to move
too; too much; excessively
This problem is too difficult for me
toward; to; in contrast to; whereas; in regard to; in; per
Up until now, Japan has taken a closed policy toward foreign countries.
([verb]-te, connects two sentences)
I'm going to the book shop to buy it.
If you go, you'll understand.
If it's from outside, I don't mind.
Ab ~seems (of somebody else's emotions & desires)
He (looks like) he wants a new car.
make, let someone do something
I made my daughter study
to do something for someone else
I will read this to you
(on when) doing, if
after you see ...
Seems like he's caught a cold.
should do Vru
I should have studied more.
Vm, verb~together, mutually
I talked it out with him.
we went shopping, and ate lunch
Talking about relative location of an object
My hat is in your car
In a flash, before one knows it, in a blink of an eye, in no time, flash by, (time) flies
Time flies when you're having fun
whether, the question of (sub sentence question)
Regardless of whether I had written it...
Vru, (negative command - sentence ending particle)
Don't do that!
(often it'd be better to do __) Such-and-such an option is something
You'd better study then.
than, rather than
Tokyo is larger than Kyoto.
seem, look like, apparently, I heard
It seems Tanaka will resign
In order to, because of, for
I telephoned to make sure he was coming.
Is diffcult to do
He's difficult to understand, isn't he?
there is no point comparing....
When we talk about speed, there is no point comparing a plane and a ship.
to the extent that; so ~ that ~ almost ~; at least; the only ~; rather than ~
It's so warm this evening that we (almost) don't need a heater.
as it is, leave as it is, (remain) unchanged
I'll leave this place as it is.
I am about to / I was about to
He arrived just as I was about to give up.
'ha (wa)' used to indicate contrast
I don't eat /meat/ (but I do eat fish).
I hear that
I hear it's going to snow.
! (exclamation mark, add emphasis, denote new information being imparted)
The bus is coming!
by the way
by the way it looks like rain
Indicates a change which has taken place or will take place.
I came to have an interest in Japan after I went to Japan
Rain started to fall.
in order to, to
It takes time to learn Japanese
Turn a phrase ending in a verb into a 'noun phrase'
Getting married is such an effort!
Adds emphasis - sentence ending particle; Emphasizes personal desires
Won't it be great if we can go fishing tomorrow?
Informal Imperative (request form)
I wonder.. (Based on か question particle.)
I wonder if he'll be here soon?
V, To say to (do something)
My doctor told me to stop drinking.
I took the trouble to go and see him, but he wasn't there
on the other hand
to affect the senses (to taste, to smell of, to feel like, to give the sensation of etc.)
This room smells of gas.
? (for casual questions)