How much is a postcard?
by means of, by, [action] at a place
I came by car.
Isn't this nice!
The 'copula' : expresses conditions. X is Y.
A bit cold
What will you have?
Looks like snow will fall
Opening hours are 9am to 5pm.
'object marker' (also shown as 'o') 目的
That [←marked by object marker] please.
to begin/start VERB-ing
I started reading yesterday.
'topic marker' (also shown as 'wa')
X wa Y desu : X is Y
to, from (indirect object marker)
I was given this by my mother.
Fred's car. / Dixon of Dock Green
(with -ve) neither ... nor , also not, either
That isn't mine either.
why?, what for?
Why didn't you come?
It rained, but everybody enjoyed themselves.
I'd like to make it easier to use but still not use frames.
? (basic question particle)
Is this your book?
indicates direction of verb. Also pronounced 'e'
I will go abroad next year.
これ(此・是・之・惟)、それ(其), あれ(彼), これ, それ, あれ
this, that, the other
this is mine, that is yours and the other is anybody's guess.
"I went to school without eating breakfast."
One's intention; conviction; belief
I intend to do that; I am convinced that ...
from ... until
from spring until autumn
But now things have changed a lot.
More than two hours