when i was in japan
before going to the UK
against, contrary to
contrary to expectations
but, although (contrast, surprising)
It's summer but it's cold.
just (just recently) / nothing but
I just bought it / you do nothing but play around
is, would be, probably is; isn't it?
I guess it will rain today
of all the ... / especially / only / just
our child of all children / especially our child
if, when (verb form)
When I wake up
で・に・前, で・に・ まえ (de - ni -mae)
time and place prepositions at in on
On Friday at 3pm
? (sentence ending particle - question) [F]
What is it you don't get?
meaning; reason; circumstances
And by that reasoning ...
to give me, to do for me, I was given
The teacher gave me a book to help me in my studies. // Would you please write this in Kanji for me?
It doesn't matter whether it's finished (lit. or not)
I heard from Tom you want to move
too; too much; excessively
This problem is too difficult for me
([verb]-te, connects two sentences)
I'm going to the book shop to buy it.
If you go, you'll understand.
If it's from outside, I don't mind.
Ab ~seems (of somebody else's emotions & desires)
He (looks like) he wants a new car.
たり する form, V stem+たり
doing things like V+ing
Yesterday I did things like watching tv and playing video games.
make, let someone do something
I made my daughter study
to do something for someone else
I will read this to you
(on when) doing, if
after you see ...
Vm, Looks like
Looks like snow'll fall.
should do Vru
I should have studied more.
Vm, verb~together, mutually
I talked it out with him.
we went shopping, and ate lunch
Talking about relative location of an object
My hat is in your car
In a flash, before one knows it, in a blink of an eye, in no time, flash by, (time) flies
Time flies when you're having fun
whether, the question of (sub sentence question)
Regardless of whether I had written it...
Vru, (negative command - sentence ending particle)
Don't do that!
(often it'd be better to do __) Such-and-such an option is something
You'd better study then.
than, rather than
Tokyo is larger than Kyoto.
seem, look like, apparently, I heard
It seems Tanaka will resign
In order to, because of, for
I telephoned to make sure he was coming.
Is diffcult to do
He's difficult to understand, isn't he?
there is no point comparing....
When we talk about speed, there is no point comparing a plane and a ship.
to the extent that; so ~ that ~ almost ~; at least; the only ~; rather than ~
It's so warm this evening that we (almost) don't need a heater.
as it is, leave as it is, (remain) unchanged
I'll leave this place as it is.
I am about to / I was about to
He arrived just as I was about to give up.
Seems like he's caught a cold.
'ha (wa)' used to indicate contrast
I don't eat /meat/ (but I do eat fish).
I hear that
I hear it's going to snow.
by the way
by the way it looks like rain
Indicates a change which has taken place or will take place.
I came to have an interest in Japan after I went to Japan
Rain started to fall.
in order to, to
It takes time to learn Japanese
Turn a phrase ending in a verb into a 'noun phrase'
Getting married is such an effort!
Adds emphasis - sentence ending particle; Emphasizes personal desires
Won't it be great if we can go fishing tomorrow?
Informal Imperative (request form)