center on, in the middle of
the center of our discussion
when i was in japan
before going to the UK
against, contrary to
contrary to expectations
but, although (contrast, surprising)
It's summer but it's cold.
It does not (necessarily) mean that 〜; I don't mean that 〜; It is not (true) that 〜; It is not the case that 〜
It doesn't necessarily mean he understood.
just (just recently) / nothing but
I just bought it / you do nothing but play around
is, would be, probably is; isn't it?
I guess it will rain today
of all the ... / especially / only / just
our child of all children / especially our child
if, when (verb form)
When I wake up
で・に・前, で・に・ まえ (de - ni -mae)
time and place prepositions at in on
On Friday at 3pm
It is a child-like expression.
? (sentence ending particle - question) [F]
What is it you don't get?
meaning; reason; circumstances
And by that reasoning ...
に従って; に従い, にしたがって; にしたがい
following; in accordance with; as 〜, accordingly; in proportion to
As our income increases, our expenditure increase accordingly.
by; according to; due to; owing to; due to
we lost our father due to the war
to give me, to do for me, I was given
The teacher gave me a book to help me in my studies. // Would you please write this in Kanji for me?
It doesn't matter whether it's finished (lit. or not)
while doing A, I had a chance to do B, since doing A anyway, do B
while i was at my parents,
I heard from Tom you want to move
too; too much; excessively
This problem is too difficult for me
toward; to; in contrast to; whereas; in regard to; in; per
Up until now, Japan has taken a closed policy toward foreign countries.
([verb]-te, connects two sentences)
I'm going to the book shop to buy it.
If you go, you'll understand.
If it's from outside, I don't mind.
Ab ~seems (of somebody else's emotions & desires)
He (looks like) he wants a new car.
make, let someone do something
I made my daughter study
to do something for someone else
I will read this to you
(on when) doing, if
after you see ...
Seems like he's caught a cold.
should do Vru
I should have studied more.
Vm, verb~together, mutually
I talked it out with him.
we went shopping, and ate lunch
Talking about relative location of an object
My hat is in your car
In a flash, before one knows it, in a blink of an eye, in no time, flash by, (time) flies
Time flies when you're having fun
whether, the question of (sub sentence question)
Regardless of whether I had written it...
Vru, (negative command - sentence ending particle)
Don't do that!
(often it'd be better to do __) Such-and-such an option is something
You'd better study then.
than, rather than
Tokyo is larger than Kyoto.
seem, look like, apparently, I heard
It seems Tanaka will resign
In order to, because of, for
I telephoned to make sure he was coming.
Is diffcult to do
He's difficult to understand, isn't he?
there is no point comparing....
When we talk about speed, there is no point comparing a plane and a ship.
to the extent that; so ~ that ~ almost ~; at least; the only ~; rather than ~
It's so warm this evening that we (almost) don't need a heater.
as it is, leave as it is, (remain) unchanged
I'll leave this place as it is.
I am about to / I was about to
He arrived just as I was about to give up.
'ha (wa)' used to indicate contrast
I don't eat /meat/ (but I do eat fish).
I hear that
I hear it's going to snow.
! (exclamation mark, add emphasis, denote new information being imparted)
The bus is coming!
by the way
by the way it looks like rain