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JLPT N3
Edit  Amatuka
Meaning
([verb]-te, connects two sentences)
I'm going to the book shop to buy it.
Edit  Amatuka
Formation
Phrases
ちゃわんをくちのところまでもってきて、はしでごはんをかきこむのはぎょうぎがわるい。
Brining the bowl up to your mouth and shoveling rice in with Chopsticks is bad manners.
Edit  #3118 KotatsuSama
このあかくておおきいくるまはたなかさんのです。
This large and red car is Mr Tanaka's.
Edit  #707 Amatuka
ほんやにいってかいます。
I'm going to the book shop and buying it.
Edit  #888 Amatuka
メロンをたべて、コーヒーをのました。
He ate some melon and drank some coffee.
Edit  #6248 fio
あるいてきます。
I come on foot (walking).
Edit  #6249 fio
いもうとはそんでいます。
My younger sister is playing (right now).
Edit  #6250 fio
しゃちょうはたいへんおこっています。
The director is very angry (he became angry and is still angry).
Edit  #6251 fio
よろこんでてつだいます。
It'll be a pleasure to help you out.
Edit  #6252 fio
てがみをもっていきました。
I brought the letter (lit. "having the letter, I came").
Edit  #6253 fio
たなかさんはでかけています。
Mr. Tanaka's gone out (Mr. Tanaka is not here).
Edit  #6254 fio
Discussion and comments
te is more of a "parallel" tense in Japanese. It reflects that the verb goes on along with the rest of the sentence or in a sequence.
te-iru is the same way, the verb is going on at the same time "you exist" hence the -ing.
KotatsuSama
The -te form has many uses; here there are just some of them:

1) It's a way to connect two sentences (a kind of equivalent expression for "and").

2) Equivalent to English "-ing".

3) -te+iru: to describe an action that is now happening or that is not already finished.
[There are similar grammatical structures with verbs like "shimau", "ageru", "yaru", "miru"... but I guess they should have their own section]

4) Replacing an adverb.

5) Motte+iku/kuru: to bring, to take, to carry something.

6) Present perfect in some cases.

When the -te form is applied to adjectives finished in -i, it has also a copulative function: joining two or more adjectives by adding -kute instead -i.

天気が悪くて、たいへん困りました。
The weather was bad, and that bothered us.

あの映画は短く面白いです。= あの映画は短くて面白いです。
That film is short and amusing.

[I must apologize for the possible mistakes this note may have. English is not my native language]
fio
Note, many, many, other uses of [vte].
Amatuka
Hmm, not the most natural example sentence in the world ^^v
Amatuka
Also -i adjectives join with -kute -くて
The copula has the 'te' form of で.
Amatuka
Verbs with auxillary verbs and auxillary adjectives use the -te form. e.g. やってみてください。
やる(in -te form, to do) みる (in -te form, to try) ください (request). All together Please try to do it.
Amatuka
It is sometimes much the same as 'and'.
Amatuka
[List of conjugations to be done]
Amatuka
It's a JLPT level 4 grammar point (both the -て and -くて forms, btw), and not a level 3 one; Only some of the -て + verb forms are part of the JLPT level 3 grammar requirements
Aria