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Edit  dc
that thing called
There is something called the Komodo Dragon.
Edit  dc
Isn't this specifically that thing called illegal immigrant?
Edit  #377 Amatuka
It's no use your begging him for help.
Edit  #3453 dbx
It's no use your begging him for help.
Edit  #3454 dbx
There have always been fashionable faces and expressions which marked an epoch.
Edit  #3455 dbx
What do you know about patience?
Edit  #3456 dbx
There is no thinking without what is called `association of ideas.'
Edit  #3457 dbx
You can't find this article everywhere.
Edit  #3458 dbx
This is so called tempura
Edit  #3459 dbx, dc
This is shorthand writing.
Edit  #3460 dbx
This is shorthand writing, by means of which we can keep up with the talker.
Edit  #3461 dbx
This was to arrange things so that I obtained the result already written in the textbooks.
Edit  #3462 dbx, dc
It's an absolute waste of time to wait any longer.
Edit  #3463 dbx
Doing only what other people say. Not taking action on your own. That is what's called lethargy.
Edit  #6233 rubyhatchet
Someone who will surely help you out in troubled times is what's called a friend.
Edit  #6234 rubyhatchet
A woman whose habit is not thinking about others and acting in her own interests is what's called self-centered.
Edit  #6235 rubyhatchet
collect all the stuff that is not to say greedy.
Edit  #8564 belajar
This person is the rhetoric of failure.
Edit  #3464 dbx
Discussion and comments
*This expression is meant to emphasize the speaker's criticism or judgement. See example #6233, #6234, and #6235.

*Be careful with というもの because という by itself or with other pieces of grammar, such as ということ, have COMPLETELY different uses and meanings. It's difficult to offer a good English translation of this grammar other than "what's called," and some of the below examples may be for the wrong grammar.

V(plain form) + というもの(だ)
なA・N + というもの(だ)
Pretty much the same as 'toiukoto'
I have to admit to being slightly dubious of my translation on this one.
My textbook says: それが当り前と言う話者の主張や感想を表す
Do 〜というものではない 〜というものでもない need their own separate entry ...?

BTW "Komodo" not "Kimodo"
In #377, "illegal immigration" should be "illegal immigrant."
"What know you of patience?"

should really be:

"What do you know about patience?"
"What know you of patience" and "What do you know about patience" are the same meaning. The first just sounds more poetic.

Also, there seems to be two grammar points being discussed here. One is というもの (I believe Japanese manuals of style say to use hiragana and not kanji for いう in this expression) as a literal "the thing called __" as in "What do you know of (the concept of) patience?"

The other grammar point is the abstract というもの that this article here does a terrible (or, rather, nonexistant job explaining). I honestly don't know how to use this, but halx's textbook gives a good explanation, it seems. To depict the expected feelings and claims of the speaker.

So yeah, two things here: one literally means "the thing called," while the other doesn't have a meaning but only a subtle nuance. It's sort of like teaching that "node" and "kara" are the same, when one emphasizes personal acceptance of guilt (among other things), while the other has no such connotation.

I suggest that someone with the requisite skills split this off into the two grammar points I've discussed, because otherwise, people reading this may not realize that they're actually two separate usages. This is important to know, and I only know because I've studied this briefly (but not enough to actually unerstand it), so I'm aware of the distinction and important usage of what I'm calling the "abstract というもの."
A good translation of the 2nd form is "it's obvious that".
e.g. これ以上待つのはそれこそ時間の浪費というものだ。could be translated as "It's _obviously_ a waste of time to wait any longer than this.