TAKOBOTO

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ごとき, ごとく, ごとし
gotoki,gotoku,gotoshi
JLPT N1
Edit  blabby
Meaning
Like, As if; resembelence, analogy, similarity
I want to fly like a bird.
実際はそうではないが、まるで〜のような/に (文語体)
Edit  blabby
Formation
See also
Phrases
れっかのごときひなん。
Criticism like fire.
Edit  #5427 blabby
わたしのごときしょしんしゃにとって、。。。
For a beginner like me, ...
Edit  #5428 blabby
じぇっときのごとくそらをとぶ。
Fly through the sky like a jet.
Edit  #5429 blabby
いじょうのごとく
As stated above...
Edit  #5430 blabby
つねのごとく
As usual.
Edit  #5431 blabby
いけるごとく
As if it is alive.
Edit  #5432 blabby
とりのごとくそらをとぶこと、これはにんげんのゆめである。
To fly through the sky like a bird; that is the dream of man.
Edit  #5433 blabby
ライオンのごとくゆうかんなひとだ。
That person is as brave as a lion.
Edit  #5434 blabby
そのしょうねんはとぶがごときいきおいで、かけさった
that boy ran away as if he was flying.
Edit  #7986 LR
そのしょうじょはのごときおとめであった。
That girl was like a white lily.
Edit  #7987 LR
ぜんじゅつしたごとく、かいぎのにっていがへんこうになりましたので、ごちゅういください。
As I mentioned before, the schedule for the meeting has changed so please take care.
Edit  #7988 LR
あのしゃちょうはよのなかのすべてがじぶんのものであるかのごとくふるまっている。
That company boss behaves as if all the world belongs to him.
Edit  #7989 LR
じんせいはこうかいのごとし。
Life is like a voyage
Edit  #7990 LR
とうきょうじんはまんにんはしっているかのごとし。
Tokyoites all look as if they are always running
Edit  #7991 LR
かのじょはじょおうのごとくげいのうかいにくんりんしている。
She dominates the showbusiness world as if she were a queen.
Edit  #7992 LR
ゆめのごときしんこんせいかつののちにひげきがおとずれた。
Their dream -like , newly-wedded bliss was followed by tragedy.
Edit  #7993 LR
Discussion and comments
Noun + (の) + ごとき + Noun
Noun + ごとく + Adjective/Verb
blabby
Not to be confused with <b>ことごとく</b>, which is an unrelated word meaning 'entirely':

 ことごとく信じる。
Believe something totally.
mochabean
Ref # Kanzen Master Level 1 - p62 - no.53
LR
Ref # A Dictionary of Advanced Japanese Grammar p103
LR
Written, Formal
LR
ごとし indicates similarity. It changes form depending on where it is in a sentence, it's nuance/grammatical function, and whether it is attached to a verb or a noun.
LR
One of the functions of ごとし / ごとき / ごとく is to mark a simile.
LR
When か is inserted, it adds the nuance of doubt on the part of the speaker.
LR
Used almost exclusively in written language.
LR
Set Phrases

上述のごとく
As stated above

当然のごとく
As if it were a matter of course
LR








{NOUN} + のごとし[魚のごとし - s.o. is like a fish]
{VERBnon-past} + (が/かの) + ごとし[夢見るがかのごとし - as if s.o. were dreaming]
{NOUN} + (か) + のごとく[魚かのごとく泳ぐ s.o. swims as if they were a fish]
{NOUN} + (か) + ごとき + {NOUN}[夢のごとき人生 life like a dream]
{NOUN である / VERBnon-past} + (が/かの) ごとき + {NOUN}[山に登る (が/かの) ごとき人生 life like climbing a mountain]
LR
生けるかのごとく
To be consistent, #5433 should be deleted - not just marking it like blabby suggests.
bamboo4
Very formal written grammar.
blabby
#5428 私ごとき is ok, too.
#5432 生けるがごとく
#5433 This is different. kotogotoku is written as 悉くor 尽く in kanji but I don't use them in kanji. hehe
Miki
Miki, thanks for your valuable advice.

In #5428, I understand that the の is optional but is #5432 incorrect? Or are 生けるがごとく and 生けるごとく both acceptable? Google gives me 79 results to 31 respectively.

Rather than delete #5433, I marked it as "question" so other readers can see that it is different.
blabby
「ごとく、ごとき」は「ように、ような」の古い言葉で、名詞の前に付かれて、改まった場所での会話や、硬い文章に使われます。
ごとく or 如く is literal diction and not normally used (sounds pedantic) in conversational speech. ような or ように can usually replace ごとく.
As between 生けるがごとく and 生けるごとく, the former is the conventional usage, but the latter is more or less acceptable (with emphasis on "less").
bamboo4
I've overwritten #5433 with an example which contains the grammar point and moved the previous example up into notes.
That way, those people giving the page a thorough read can be alerted to the difference, while those just scrolling down to get examples of the actual grammar point won't be confused by unrelated sentences.
Does this keep everyone happy?
mochabean