I know him but we've never met.
(location marker, time marker, direction marker)
There's a dog in that car.
How much is a postcard?
by means of, by, [action] at a place
I came by car.
Isn't this nice!
There is a television in the kitchen.
The 'copula' : expresses conditions. X is Y.
A bit cold
What will you have?
Vm, Looks like
Looks like snow'll fall.
Opening hours are 9am to 5pm.
'object marker' (also shown as 'o') 目的
That [←marked by object marker] please.
to begin/start VERB-ing
I started reading yesterday.
'topic marker' (also shown as 'wa')
X wa Y desu : X is Y
to, from (indirect object marker)
I was given this by my mother.
Fred's car. / Dixon of Dock Green
(with -ve) neither ... nor , also not, either
That isn't mine either.
why?, what for?
Why didn't you come?
It rained, but everybody enjoyed themselves.
I'd like to make it easier to use but still not use frames.
? (basic question particle)
Is this your book?
indicates direction of verb. Also pronounced 'e'
I will go abroad next year.
これ(此・是・之・惟)、それ(其), あれ(彼), これ, それ, あれ
this, that, the other
this is mine, that is yours and the other is anybody's guess.
I want to (verb)
netai: I want to sleep
"I went to school without eating breakfast."
One's intention; conviction; belief
I intend to do that; I am convinced that ...
from ... until
from spring until autumn
But now things have changed a lot.
More than two hours
when i was in japan
before going to the UK
against, contrary to
contrary to expectations
but, although (contrast, surprising)
It's summer but it's cold.
just (just recently) / nothing but
I just bought it / you do nothing but play around
is, would be, probably is; isn't it?
I guess it will rain today
of all the ... / especially / only / just
our child of all children / especially our child
if, when (verb form)
When I wake up
で・に・前, で・に・ まえ (de - ni -mae)
time and place prepositions at in on
On Friday at 3pm
? (sentence ending particle - question) [F]
What is it you don't get?
meaning; reason; circumstances
And by that reasoning ...
to give me, to do for me, I was given
The teacher gave me a book to help me in my studies. // Would you please write this in Kanji for me?
It doesn't matter whether it's finished (lit. or not)
I heard from Tom you want to move
too; too much; excessively
This problem is too difficult for me
([verb]-te, connects two sentences)
I'm going to the book shop to buy it.
If you go, you'll understand.