(location marker, time marker, direction marker)
There's a dog in that car.
How much is a postcard?
by means of, by, [action] at a place
I came by car.
There is a television in the kitchen.
I want to (verb)
netai: I want to sleep
Don't you know a better method?
I know him but we've never met.
is, would be, probably is; isn't it?
I guess it will rain today
Isn't this nice!
to avoid; to prevent
The 'copula' : expresses conditions. X is Y.
A bit cold
too; too much; excessively
This problem is too difficult for me
What will you have?
たり する form, V stem+たり
doing things like V+ing
Yesterday I did things like watching tv and playing video games.
Looks like snow will fall
Opening hours are 9am to 5pm.
'object marker' (also shown as 'o') 目的
That [←marked by object marker] please.
to begin/start VERB-ing
I started reading yesterday.
'topic marker' (also shown as 'wa')
X wa Y desu : X is Y
to, from (indirect object marker)
I was given this by my mother.
Fred's car. / Dixon of Dock Green
(with -ve) neither ... nor , also not, either
That isn't mine either.
why?, what for?
Why didn't you come?
It rained, but everybody enjoyed themselves.
I'd like to make it easier to use but still not use frames.
? (basic question particle)
Is this your book?
indicates direction of verb. Also pronounced 'e'
I will go abroad next year.
これ(此・是・之・惟)、それ(其), あれ(彼), これ, それ, あれ
this, that, the other
this is mine, that is yours and the other is anybody's guess.
"I went to school without eating breakfast."
One's intention; conviction; belief
I intend to do that; I am convinced that ...
from ... until
from spring until autumn
But now things have changed a lot.
More than two hours
center on, in the middle of
the center of our discussion
when i was in japan
before going to the UK
against, contrary to
contrary to expectations
but, although (contrast, surprising)
It's summer but it's cold.
It does not (necessarily) mean that 〜; I don't mean that 〜; It is not (true) that 〜; It is not the case that 〜
It doesn't necessarily mean he understood.
just (just recently) / nothing but
I just bought it / you do nothing but play around
of all the ... / especially / only / just
our child of all children / especially our child
if, when (verb form)
When I wake up
で・に・前, で・に・ まえ (de - ni -mae)
time and place prepositions at in on
On Friday at 3pm