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以上, 已上, いじょう
1. not less than, ... and over, ... and above, ... and upwards, ... or more
2. beyond (e.g. one's expectations), more than, further than
May take 'no'
3. above-mentioned, aforementioned, foregoing
4. since ..., seeing that ..., now that ..., once ...
5. that's all, that is the end
See more > common
Particle, See 乃, occasionally ん, orig. written 乃 or 之
1. indicates possessive
2. nominalizes verbs and adjectives
See が・1
3. substitutes for "ga" in subordinate phrases
often ん
4. (at sentence-end, falling tone) indicates a confident conclusion
Female term or language
5. (at sentence-end) indicates emotional emphasis
See more > common