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Auxiliary, See で・5, で after certain verb forms
indicates continuing action
Particle, See と・4, casual quoting particle
1. you said, he said, she said, they said
See たって・1, as たって; indicates supposition
2. if ... then
as かって; indicates a satirical or rhetorical question
3. do you seriously think that
indicates certainty, insistence, emphasis, etc.
4. I already told you, you should know by now that, of course
abbr. of という
5. the said ...
See more > common
Particle, emphasizes preceding word or phrase
1. it is ... that ..., precisely, in particular, definitely, for sure, only (when, after, because, etc.)
as こそあれ, こそすれ, こそするが, etc.
2. although, while, it is the case that ... but
after conditional -ba form of verb
3. it is precisely because ... that ..., only because ...
formal or literary term, after -nai stem of verb + ば
4. not at all, not in the slightest, absolutely not, never
See more > common
くっそ, 苦蘇, こそ, クッソ, コソ
Usually in kana
kousso (African flowering plant, Hagenia abyssinica), kosso, cusso, koso, brayera