(on when) doing, if
after you see ...
make, let someone do something
I made my daughter study
to do something for someone else
I will read this to you
Vm, Looks like
Looks like snow'll fall.
we went shopping, and ate lunch
In a flash, before one knows it, in a blink of an eye, in no time, flash by, (time) flies
Time flies when you're having fun
Vm, verb~together, mutually
I talked it out with him.
Talking about relative location of an object
My hat is in your car
should do Vru
I should have studied more.
Ab ~seems (of somebody else's emotions & desires)
He (looks like) he wants a new car.
seem, look like, apparently, I heard
It seems Tanaka will resign
than, rather than
Tokyo is larger than Kyoto.
Vru, (negative command - sentence ending particle)
Don't do that!
Is diffcult to do
He's difficult to understand, isn't he?
to the extent that; so ~ that ~ almost ~; at least; the only ~; rather than ~
It's so warm this evening that we (almost) don't need a heater.
(often it'd be better to do __) Such-and-such an option is something
You'd better study then.
as it is, leave as it is, (remain) unchanged
I'll leave this place as it is.
there is no point comparing....
When we talk about speed, there is no point comparing a plane and a ship.
In order to, because of, for
I telephoned to make sure he was coming.
whether, the question of (sub sentence question)
Regardless of whether I had written it...
I am about to / I was about to
He arrived just as I was about to give up.
by the way
by the way it looks like rain
Indicates a change which has taken place or will take place.
I came to have an interest in Japan after I went to Japan
Seems like he's caught a cold.
'ha (wa)' used to indicate contrast
I don't eat /meat/ (but I do eat fish).
I hear that
I hear it's going to snow.
I took the trouble to go and see him, but he wasn't there
I wonder.. (Based on か question particle.)
I wonder if he'll be here soon?
V, To say to (do something)
My doctor told me to stop drinking.
Turn a phrase ending in a verb into a 'noun phrase'
Getting married is such an effort!
Existence of possibility
It could explode.
in order to, to
It takes time to learn Japanese
Adds emphasis - sentence ending particle; Emphasizes personal desires
Won't it be great if we can go fishing tomorrow?
Informal Imperative (request form)
Vm, wanting to do ___
I want to see a Bond movie!
Try to do something, but the nuance is that it was unsuccessful.
I tried to kiss her, but she said no.
area passed through (通過点)
I walked through the park.
(marks point of departure) 出発点
I left the room.
to the extent of; to the extent that ~; (not as) ~ as ~ ; about [REL. bakari; kurai]
(Lit, I'm not strong as Lenz's extent. (=I'm not as strong as Lenz))
to affect the senses (to taste, to smell of, to feel like, to give the sensation of etc.)
This room smells of gas.
appearance, looks, seems
A sound like rain falling
て形+ある (て在る・て有る), ～てある
Vte something has been purposely put into a state
The window has been closed.
To be, is (formal equivalent of だ [da])
! (exclamation mark, add emphasis, denote new information being imparted)
The bus is coming!
て形+みる (て見る), てみる
to try (out)
try to read
? (for casual questions)
て形+くる (て来る), てくる
Vte go, do something, and return
I'll go buy the newspaper (and come back)
Vte, (Definitely, completely [often to ones regret] do V)
Now you've gone and broke it.