when i was in japan
before going to the UK
against, contrary to
contrary to expectations
but, although (contrast, surprising)
It's summer but it's cold.
just (just recently) / nothing but
I just bought it / you do nothing but play around
is, would be, probably is; isn't it?
I guess it will rain today
of all the ... / especially / only / just
our child of all children / especially our child
if, when (verb form)
When I wake up
で・に・前, で・に・ まえ (de - ni -mae)
time and place prepositions at in on
On Friday at 3pm
? (sentence ending particle - question) [F]
What is it you don't get?
meaning; reason; circumstances
And by that reasoning ...
to give me, to do for me, I was given
The teacher gave me a book to help me in my studies. // Would you please write this in Kanji for me?
I heard from Tom you want to move
It doesn't matter whether it's finished (lit. or not)
too; too much; excessively
This problem is too difficult for me
([verb]-te, connects two sentences)
I'm going to the book shop to buy it.
If you go, you'll understand.
If it's from outside, I don't mind.
たり する form, V stem+たり
doing things like V+ing
Yesterday I did things like watching tv and playing video games.
(on when) doing, if
after you see ...
make, let someone do something
I made my daughter study
to do something for someone else
I will read this to you
Vm, Looks like
Looks like snow'll fall.
we went shopping, and ate lunch
In a flash, before one knows it, in a blink of an eye, in no time, flash by, (time) flies
Time flies when you're having fun
Vm, verb~together, mutually
I talked it out with him.
Talking about relative location of an object
My hat is in your car
should do Vru
I should have studied more.
Ab ~seems (of somebody else's emotions & desires)
He (looks like) he wants a new car.
seem, look like, apparently, I heard
It seems Tanaka will resign
than, rather than
Tokyo is larger than Kyoto.
Vru, (negative command - sentence ending particle)
Don't do that!
Is diffcult to do
He's difficult to understand, isn't he?
to the extent that; so ~ that ~ almost ~; at least; the only ~; rather than ~
It's so warm this evening that we (almost) don't need a heater.
(often it'd be better to do __) Such-and-such an option is something
You'd better study then.
as it is, leave as it is, (remain) unchanged
I'll leave this place as it is.
there is no point comparing....
When we talk about speed, there is no point comparing a plane and a ship.
In order to, because of, for
I telephoned to make sure he was coming.
whether, the question of (sub sentence question)
Regardless of whether I had written it...
I am about to / I was about to
He arrived just as I was about to give up.
by the way
by the way it looks like rain
Indicates a change which has taken place or will take place.
I came to have an interest in Japan after I went to Japan
Seems like he's caught a cold.
'ha (wa)' used to indicate contrast
I don't eat /meat/ (but I do eat fish).
I hear that
I hear it's going to snow.
I took the trouble to go and see him, but he wasn't there
I wonder.. (Based on か question particle.)
I wonder if he'll be here soon?
V, To say to (do something)
My doctor told me to stop drinking.
Turn a phrase ending in a verb into a 'noun phrase'
Getting married is such an effort!
Existence of possibility
It could explode.